"The Assessorís Office Web Site, A Searchable Tool"
The purpose for writing this article is to illustrate what has been accomplished in the Park County Colorado Assessorís Office web products. I also wanted to provide a brief history of how we have progressed with our current web site. If I can provide some insight and help you with our experiences, in developing or modifying assessor web products, so much the better. The address to our web site is www.parkco.org .
Iíve relied upon fellow IAAO members to provide many good ideas. This year I became a twenty-year member of IAAO. I have no professional or ethical problem using another assessment professionalís "good ideas"! I learned a significant amount of great concepts from attending previous IAAO conferences since 1988. I expect to learn new tools at this conference, too.
Iíve worked in the Park County Assessorís Office since June 1979. Iíve served the citizens of Park County as the elected Assessor since October 1980. Iíve been re-elected five times, beginning in 1982. I have been striving for many years to improve the technology in my office. I like to experiment, (not that my staff always appreciates my ideas!), and increase our efficiency.
Regardless of the fact that we operate within a local government bureaucracy, my personal philosophy is to treat our "customers" with professional assistance, courtesy, and respect. Our Office has earned a reputation for providing excellent customer service. As a small rural county, we may not be able to offer a variety of current technology. However, service will always be our number one priority. We are available to help any consumer of our public data. We provide a large amount of public information, and are relied upon to disseminate it to our consumers on a variety of media.
The availability of public data has brought me to the conclusion that the Internet is a very useful tool for allowing the public at large access to our information. My course down this path originally began with a selfish interest to reduce the amount of data related telephone calls made to our Office.
In 1995 our Administrative staff had been averaging between 75 Ė 150 telephone calls per day. Our county was growing rapidly, and it was becoming increasingly difficult for staff to complete their "normal" duties and also answer the telephone! What could I do to alleviate this problem?
In 1996 our software consultant, Mr. Allan Shafton of Good Turns Software, (Good Turns Software, email address, email@example.com) became aware of a colleague, Mr. Martin Reich, who was developing and providing searchable web sites. At that time, both individuals were located in Steamboat Springs, Colorado. We were involved in a multi-county effort to share software for county government offices.
Mr. Shafton began his association with this Office in 1988, amending our existing vendor software (KVS). He was able to also write additional modules to fit our needs. He became familiar with our data structure and offered solutions that were not available from the vendor. We eventually ceased our contractual relationship with the vendor, and had Good Turns Software maintain and develop our appraisal and administrative software. This was a hybrid of KVS and our own applications.
Equipped with this knowledge, he engaged Mr. Reich on our behalf to apply his web site tools to our data layouts. The short answer to a long story was that we eventually had a web site! Unfortunately, it was very difficult to use, and the "searchable" data options didnít work well at all. We discontinued our experiment in 1997. We didnít incur a large expenditure of costs, as our agreement was clear that if I was not satisfied with its performance, I wouldnít pay for it.
As more "over the counter" software tools became available, Mr. Shafton began to experiment with constructing web products based upon our data. Additionally, he had contact with the Routt and Logan County Assessors who were also interested in this concept.
The bottom line; Good Turns Software developed in collaboration with the Park County Assessorís Office our current, or second web product. He maintains our updates and modifies my modules as I craftily create them! He also is the web site developer for Routt, Logan, and Eagle counties in Colorado. If you view each county and observe similarities of our individual web products, it is by design. We are NOT trying to re-invent the wheel, but to work collaboratively on basic features that can be cost shared. If we can create or modify a new module or customer service feature, we want to share the development costs.
In 1999 we purchased the "RealWare" appraisal software package offered by Colorado Customware, Inc. In 2000, we obtained their administrative software to become a complete RealWare county installation. Our web site utilizes their unique characteristics, and is derived from their data sets.
Park County is listed within the top five fastest growing counties in the nation, based upon the per cent of population growth. Our geographic location is approximately in the center of the state. Our western county boundary is the Continental Divide, in the Mosquito Range. We are a headwater county for the South Platte River basin, which provides the Denver metro area a majority of its water supplies. Five major storage reservoirs are located within our boundaries. Approximately eighty percent of our surface water has been sold to downstream municipalities.
Park County contains 2,200 square miles of area, and is the fourteenth largest county out of sixty-four counties in Colorado. State, local, and Federal governments own over 70% of our land area. We are a major recreation county, as our historic base of mining and agriculture is fast fading into memory. Without surface irrigation water, our historic and world-renowned South Park hay crop production is minimal. Mining for precious metals is almost non-existent, except for a few placer operations.
Park County accounts for over twenty-five percent of all fisherman days in Colorado, per the state Division of Wildlife. South Park, the reality, (NO, not the cartoon, although it is based upon the REAL South Park) is a large portion of our county land area. South Park is a large high elevation plain surrounded on all sides by mountain ranges. And no, I DONíT know who killed Kenny!!!
Fairplay is the county seat, and where the courthouse and county offices are based. Fairplayís elevation is 10,000 feet above sea level, and most of our county elevation ranges between 8,000 to 14,000 feet above sea level. It is located approximately eighty five-road miles southwest of the Denver metropolitan area, and also approximately eight five-road miles east by northeast from the Colorado Springs metropolitan area.
One of our main functions has evolved into providing worker housing for those who commute to surrounding counties and communities. For example, our northeastern portion is only forty road miles to the Denver metro area. The area surrounding Fairplay is a commuter base to Summit County to the west. Other areas commute into Colorado Springs, Canon City, and also the Buena Vista communities. As you can see, most of our residents work outside of our county, as economic opportunities are limited within our county.
Our local real estate market is significantly less expensive when compared to most of our surrounding counties. This is driving our growth rate even faster, as the trend of real estate values for the past several years is continuing to appreciate. People are making conscious economic decisions to live in Park County, and to commute to their jobs, for our rural mountain lifestyle and inherent beauty!
How to make our data available without personal contact with the Office staff? Why do we need our human resources to provide public information? We wouldnít if the data were available another way. Who would utilize other options for available data? We have sold our data on a variety of media for years. How would we recoup the loss in revenue, if at all? Would the public be receptive to "on-line" data services?
Communication problems within portions of the county have historically been significant, and continue to persist. We are the only county in Colorado that was placed in two area codes. Most communities had to place a long distance telephone call to contact the county offices. Our PBX / telephone system was antiquated and in poor repair. It still is!
This same poor efficiency has existed in varying degrees since 1986. Due to our rural nature and geographic location, high-speed data lines didnít exist. The cost to install such systems was prohibitive. This made our communication with any one very frustrating to the public. Not to mention these problems hindered our county staff, trying to respond to public inquiries.
An effective alternative appeared to be the Internet, and basing the hosting equipment at a private site. This would allow for our data to be accessed regardless of our staffing level, time of day, or day of the week. If we "rented" space on a private ISP provider, we wouldnít have to worry about our data integrity and security, or be responsible for downtime due to mechanical or communication problems. I didnít want the responsibility for the start up costs of hosting our own web site. I found it was less expensive to outsource this service. It didnít matter where it was located, as long as it was stable and reliable.
How do we get started? What information should be provided as a matter of public record? What information should NOT be provided, as a matter of law?
Who will be our primary users? Would they pay a small fee to gain access to our data files?
I became interested in web-based products by looking at what other Assessorís Offices and jurisdictions were doing. Initially, I looked at many Florida sites, as well as California counties. At that time, only two counties in Colorado had searchable web products available.
My goal was to have the system easy to use, and relatively simple. Some of the sites I viewed were most colorful. And they were offering a wide variety of helpful information about their county and property assessments. Yet I personally found them hard to use, and generally their property search criteria needed a street address to access their data. They didnít allow for name searches or legal description searches as a whole.
My goal became to create a basic web product that would be very user friendly, and contain as much public data as possible that would be useful. Again, my selfish goal was to reduce and also eliminate telephone calls to our staff, so we could be more effective. I also wanted the public to be able to search our database by several methods, to enable the widest variety of user possible. Frankly, I had a vision of users setting in front of their PCís in their pajamas at two in the morning, obtaining the data they wanted!
What data and information was originally provided on the web site? How has that changed from then until now? The basic chassis of our second web product is what you will see today. I have added additional information and data over the past three years. As the system has grown, I have changed the various data items, and added more information and "customer service" modules.
I have listened to and solicited feedback from the users of the web site. Real estate professionals, such as brokers, title companies, and fee appraisers, have been open and frank in communicating their "wants" and "needs". I believe their input has been invaluable in "fine tuning" the type of data we provide. The more they use the web site, the less they interact with staff, and the better I like it! The Administrative staff consistently refers the public to the web site, and it has been warmly received. This helps the user become aware of the site.
I would like to demonstrate the "Wisselnet" modules and options, as they currently exist. The following is a listing of the links and titles of all the other informational modules.
Park County Assessorís Office Home Page: General data of the prior and current year values, both actual and assessed values. Contact information to communicate with the office, and also the Search Park County Property Data link.
Search Park County Property Data: Allows the user to search our tax roll by schedule (account) number, property owners name, physical address, and legal description. The search capability is designed for individual property data, and the default is twenty-five records. However, the user can modify the number of records retrieved from one to two hundred records.
Additional individual data is provided listing the ownerís name(s) and mailing address, physical address (if captured), property type, schedule number, land attributes and characteristics, all building and improvement characteristics (except commercial / industrial), and last property transfer / transaction data. We also offer a sales history module to provide what data we have captured since 1989.
Abstract of Assessment: This is our annual "report card" of the types of property appraised in Park County that is filed with the State. I provide this report from the 1997 tax roll year to our current year. It contains the type of property, the breakdown by assessed value, the number of parcels or acres of such property.
Levies & Revenues: I provide the data from the Certification of Levies and Revenues, as adopted by the Board of County Commissioners each December. I provide this information from the 1997-tax roll year to current, by entity type, fund, and property tax amounts.
Layers of Local Government: This module lists the individual taxing entitiesí levies, and the aggregate mill levy of each taxing district, along with a two-year history of the aggregate amounts, and changes. This allows the user to enter a specific tax area number, and the various units of local government are listed by entity name and individual mill levy amount.
With the passage in 1992 of a citizen-initiated constitutional amendment, TABOR, (Taxpayers Bill of Rights, which restricts the amount of new property tax revenue per year per individual taxing authority to a "most restrictive" formula) our taxing authorities are limited in the amount of new property tax revenue each can generate. Due to our rapid rate of growth, the individual and aggregate mill levy amounts have been declining each year. The negative effect of TABOR has yet to be felt, as our statewide economy has been healthy. That downside will occur when the real estate market corrects, and declines. Mill levy amounts are capped at their level as of 1992, and can only be increased with voter approval.
Elected Officials: I provide a listing of the names and contact data for each Park County Elected Official. We are each constitutional officers, and have our own duties and responsibilities.
General Info: This lists our generic duties as defined in our state statutes and constitution.
Appeal Info: This provides information on when and how to appeal property values, classifications, and the time frame for each year. I also have included a direct link to our On-Line Appeal module, so taxpayers can move directly to that option if they choose to do so.
Treasurer & Public Trustee Info: I provide a page for general information and dates for this office. I also provide in whole dollars current tax amounts, and projected amounts for the next year during a reappraisal year. The listing of this data has also reduced the amount of telephone inquiries made to the Treasurerís Office. They havenít quantified their decrease, but feel it is significant.
Town Hall Meeting: Each year I travel around Park County presenting what I call "Property Tax 101" Town Hall Meetings. I sponsor a two-hour inter-active workshop, and provide a "class" to interested residents to educate them on the local property tax system. I have a set agenda, which wonít last longer than two hours!
I believe NO one should willingly have to absorb property tax info for more than two consecutive hours! I have been doing this each year for the past seven years. Interest varies each year, and even numbered years are generally less attended than our odd numbered years of re-appraisal. Business is up in the odd numbered years!
Appraisal Methods: This lists the three approaches to value, and how we apply them to the different types of property in Colorado. Depending upon the type of property, the appraisal methodology and procedures will differ.
Reappraisal: Each odd numbered year in Colorado we update our appraisals for property tax purposes. This provides information on how and why we change values. This year all counties in Colorado updated the appraisals used for property tax purposes. Our total appeals were down by one third compared to 1999 appeal levels.
Vacant Land Reappraisal Order: This was a public relations module I provided during 1999 Ė 2000. We have an audit and performance standard of our appraisal prowess each year. In 1999, I failed to "pass the audit" on our Vacant Land due to providing to the independent audit firm an incorrect sales database. This lists the history and actions of other entities and myself.
This was the most challenging period during my time as Assessor. I faced a recall effort, which fell short of the required signatures. I also was battling the County Commissioners and their County Manager over a multitude of issues. It makes for exciting reading, and all pertinent documents are included in this module.
2000 Audit Results: This is a direct link to the Thomas Y. Pickett web site (our annual compliance auditor) showing our final results, and compliance statistics. I have maintained a link to their web site since 1999.
Change of Address: This allows the on-line user the ability to email me directly with their change of mailing address. I receive an average of two to three address changes per day from this module.
Additionally, I have a HOT INFO module, where I list more current or time sensitive information and data. Since this was a reappraisal year in Colorado, I have duplicated some of our "standard" informational modules, and added some new ones.
Appeal Online: This module has been operating for three years. I allow property owners to appeal their value on-line. Again, I want to provide easy access to our office, and this option has been very successful (perhaps too successful!) This is time sensitive, so during our statutory appeal period the form is "on". If a taxpayer attempts to appeal during the "off" time of the year, the form canít be downloaded, and wonít be sent to the office.
Messages prompt the user how to begin the process, if it is complete or not, and when it has been sent. I receive these appeals as an email directly to my address, with the data provided included. I donít receive the entire form, just the variable field entry and required data. I require the property owner to provide their email address, a contact telephone number, an ownerís estimate of value, and verification that they are the owner and are submitting this appeal. It works great!
Commercial Valuation: One of my experiments this year was to outsource the appraisal and other functions of commercial property. I had lost our only commercial appraiser in January 2000, and wanted to try a private firm on a contract basis to replace that position. The contract is for the 2001 year, and the total cost is $36,000. The contractor is responsible to provide a turnkey service. They are to provide all functions that a regular employee would, without being present in our office. This module explains whom our contractor ValueCheck is, and what they are being paid to do. I believe this experiment has also been very successful, and look forward to continuing this relationship in 2002 and beyond.
Vacant / Residential Economic Areas Maps: This is a new module for 2001. It lists maps of our economic areas by property type in Park County. By clicking on the appropriate economic area, all qualified and verified sales used in our 2001 appraisals are provided in that area. We have different sales, by property type, and therefore we have two different maps and area numbers. This was very successful in 2001, and helped alleviate the request for our sales data. I believe it was also directly responsible for our reduced level of appeals this year.
firstname.lastname@example.org .This is a direct email link to my personal office address. I generally receive between 5 Ė 30 emails per day. This has made communicating with the office very easy. Certainly easier than our telephone system! I have consistently placed my email address and web site address on all of our forms and published information.
IAAO Web Site Link: This is a direct link to the IAAO web site.
Colorado Assessorís Association Link: This is a direct link to the CAA web site. This site was developed and launched in 2000. It also offers direct links to other state agencies and departments. This also allows our Colorado Assessors to communicate directly with each other, with a statewide sales data base and bulletin board. We also receive our legislative updates directly from the web site. The web site address is www.e-caa.com if you wish to view it.
NOTE: I donít personally perform the programming and web site layout. Mr. Shafton accomplishes all of those duties. I like to think I come up with GREAT ideas and he makes them work very well!
Routt County Ė All appraisal and administrative database items are available, and taxpayers are able to download reports per their individual queries. "Full disclosure, nothing to hide" is the motto of Ms. Amy Williams, Assessor. The county seat is Steamboat Springs. She believes in providing any and all data that is not confidential by law. Routt County uses Eagle Computer Systems as their software vendor. Their web site integrates their unique features. Their web site address is pioneer.yampa.com/asp/assessor/ if you wish to view it.
Logan County Ė This is a rural and agricultural county located in northeastern Colorado. The county seat is Sterling. This site specifically provides land classes and subclasses of farm and ranch property inherent with this county. Ms. Ann Rogers is the Assessor. Their software vendor is Cole - Layer - Trumble (CLT), and their web site integrates their unique features. Their web site address is www.loganco-assessor.org if you wish to view it.
Eagle County Ė This is one of our most recognizable year round resort counties, being the host of Vail and Beaver Creek. The county seat is Eagle. This is an "in progress" project as in Intranet and Internet product. They will be providing full data base search capabilities to the Assessorís Office and all other county departments. The site is not available to public access at this time, but should be up and running in 2001. Ms. Jody Caruthers is the Assessor. Eagle County also uses Eagle Computer Systems as their software vendor. Their web site address is www.eagle-county.com/ if you wish to view it.
Summit County Ė Coloradoís major year round resort county which hosts Breckenridge, Copper Mountain, and Keystone ski areas. The county seat is Breckenridge. This is our "rich" neighbor to the west where our boundaries meet on the continental divide at Hoosier Pass. They are linking their GIS and mapping data to their Assessorís Office files to create a property search capability. This will provide maps of their county, which will zoom in and out, and link the Assessorís land and improvement data to each individual parcel.
They utilize an "in house" MIS department, and have developed their software locally. I realize this is not new, but for my neighboring county, it is a proud accomplishment! Ms. Denise Steiskel is the Assessor. She also chairs our CAA Web site committee, and was instrumental in bringing our Association web site to fruition. Their web site address is www.co.summit.co.us if you wish to view it.
One of the benefits I had hoped to realize was the investment in technology versus the addition of human resources. My original goal was to have a minimum of ten user sessions per day, with fifty "hits" of our data. It was my belief that if we could begin with a small number of users, the word would spread about our new tools. As the growth rate of users increased for the site, we would begin to produce an overall cost saving.
I have invested a total of approximately $45,000 from 1997 to this year in the development and enhancement of the site. I have allocated an annual investment for Good Turns Software of around $10,000. The largest amount I have spent was $25,000 during 1997, the initial development year of the current format. That is a large sum of money, but when compared to the cost of personnel, it was a fair exchange.
The site is averaging FTE savings of between twenty-five to forty staff hours per twenty-four hour period, seven days a week. That is a salary savings of approximately three to four full time staff positions per year. Based on an annual salary of $21,000 as an entry-level employee, the cost savings is between $63,000 to $84,000 per year. I believe that is a conservative estimate, as our increased productivity is not included in this calculation.
The "rent" to the ISP to host our site costs $ 2,200 per year. The site is physically located in Bengin, Washington. This is near the location of Good Turns Software, and was chosen primarily for his convenience. We are placing over forty megabytes of data on this site. It is updated every three to four weeks. Eventually I want to update the site weekly. This process has been automated so that once the files are captured, they automatically are sent to the host FTP site to replace the previous data sets. This is accomplished from our office, and doesnít require the consultant to perform this task.
Another problem was to "track" our users, and what data they were viewing. Mr. Shafton worked with our host ISP to recommend a product called WebTrends. This was originally designed for commercial web site hosts, and tracks use and user information. This was more desirable to me than a "site or visitor" counter as seen on so many web sites. Iím not opposed to that methodology, I just wanted a more detailed analysis of whom and what type of data, generically, our users were obtaining.
The recommendation was an excellent one. Each day the report is updated, showing the use over the past seven days. Tomorrow, a day will be added, and a day deleted in the user report. The address for this report is www.parkco.org/report.
I refer to the report as "More Information Than I Really Want to Know"! In the current form, the report is thirty-one pages long. I have included the first page of the data and analysis in the contents of this report. You can view the entire report data at your leisure at the address listed above, and determine if this would be useful in your jurisdiction. I review the results approximately every three days, and have been amazed at how our use rates continue to grow.
As of the August 27, 2001 report, our average number of user sessions was 182 per day from 8/21 Ė 8/27. The average user session was 11 minutes 25 seconds. This data can be calculated into Full Time Equivalent (FTE) staff hours. 182 users X 11.42 average minutes equal a total of 2,078 minutes. Divide 2,078 by 60 and it equals 34.6 FTE staff hours of data provided per twenty-four hour period.
This is data provided without staff interruption. Since we only are available to the public for nine hours per day, five days per week, the "normal" workday FTE savings are approximately 3.8 per day.
One of the most fascinating portions of the WebTrends report is the use of the site from other countries. We have always had international users, and consistently have provided data to countries all over the world.
For example, in the August 27, 2001 WebTrends report the countries using our web site are the United States, Hungary, Sweden, Germany, United Kingdom, Austria, Switzerland, Canada, Netherlands, and Japan. Iíve also observed users from Singapore, South Korea, South Africa, Italy, France, Spain, Turkey, and Malaysia. We do have several property owners who reside over seas, but I never imagined the amount of international use of the web site!
We could not add an equivalent number of staff in our limited office space even if they were funded! If we didnít have the web site available, we could not possible keep up with our daily and annual duties. I get complaints, when on the rare occasions, the site isnít working or available to our users. I take that as a huge compliment!
I am very cognizant of the privacy issues brought to light by having public data accessible on the web. In the three plus years from the placement of our data on the web site (January 1, 1998) to present, I have had four complaints from individual taxpayers that voiced their objection to their property data being available. Three were based on the principle that they just didnít want their data to be available to anyone. The last was from a former law enforcement professional who didnít want his information to be available easily.
I have considered their concerns carefully, and given a great deal of thought to what was / is appropriate data. By law, Colorado assessment and property data is generally available to the public upon request. Very few data items are considered confidential, and I believe this is good public policy. More data is available from my office if a person walks in and requests it, versus what is placed on the web site. I control what type of data I place on the web site. I canít control what a person obtains from my office if they are so inclined.
It is my opinion that the good outweighs the bad possibilities of providing tax roll data on the Internet. I believe that although risks exist, the negative possibilities are miniscule compared to the public benefit. That reality is one of the trade-offs of living in a semi-free society. I choose to provide the data, which I think is most useful. I will continue to monitor the issue, and I am willing to discuss it with anyone concerned.
Mr. John Bass, El Paso County Assessor has a very good disclaimer statement on his office web site. He was a long-term office employee who was elected Assessor in 1998. The county seat of El Paso County is Colorado Springs. This is one of our larger metropolitan counties located on the Front Range.
A large amount of public discussion has occurred in his county, with him being the target as the source of the controversy. He has handled the controversy head on by defending his position professionally and courteously.
He has prepared a history in the form of a report, which he provided to each CAA member at our recent summer conference this past August. A copy for your review is available upon request. It provides news articles and associated materiel on his two - year journey into placing "public" data on his web site.
I am providing this one clause verbatim for your edification, and plan to add it to our web site in the very near future. I believe it is one of the finest statements I have seen regarding the issue of public access versus individual privacy.
By definition, the Assessorís duties are to locate, identify, and list property. The records of the Assessor are "Public" and the Assessor is considered to be the "Custodian" of these records. The availability of information regarding Real Property on this site complies with 24-72-203(II) C.R.S., which states: Custodian shallÖ. "Take such measures as are necessary to assist the public in locating any specific public records sought and to ensure public access to the public records without unreasonable delay or unreasonable cost. Such measures may include, without limitation, the availability of viewing stations for public records kept on microfiche; the provision of portable disk copies of computer files; or direct electronic access via on-line bulletin boards or other means."
The complete language of this disclaimer and additional information regarding placing Assessorís Office data on the Internet is available at www.co.el-paso.co.us/land/PropertySrchdisclaimer.htm .
13. Conclusions: I continue to be convinced that providing an interactive, searchable web site is appropriate for most assessment jurisdictions. I believe our experiences have solidified my resolve to continue on our current path. I plan to continue to increase the type and amount of public data modules as time passes on.
For example, we have switched to digital images of improvements and buildings versus 35mm film photography. We are working toward electronic sketches of building footprints. We are beginning, after twenty years of waiting, to receive GIS products we can use. I have a vision that in the not too distant future, these items will also be listed on our office web site.
I believe that one of our primary duties as assessment officials is to provide as much data as is reasonable, necessary, and useful. As technology advances, the ability of our human resources to perform their duties will be enhanced by fewer individual requests for information. The more time we can devote to our "hands on" duties, the more efficient we will become. Time is our enemy, and if we leverage our time more wisely, better appraisal products will be the end product for our constituents.
I will be glad to answer any questions or concerns you may have. I want to thank you for your kind attention to my opinions, and hope to further discuss this issue with you on a personal basis. I want to thank all that helped me complete this article; my family, staff, neighboring counties, and members of the Colorado Assessorís Association.
Specifically, I want to acknowledge Mr. Allan Shafton, Ms. Amy Williams, Ms. Ann Rodgers, Ms. Jody Caruthers, Mr. John Bass, Mr. Gary Nichols, and Ms. Denise Steiskel respectively. And indirectly, Trey Parker and Matt Stone for making "South Park" a household name, even if the characters and story lines ARE more true than you can imagine!
It has been a pleasure compiling this information for your edification. Please contact me with any questions or concerns. I will answer your inquiries to the best of my ability either here at this conference, or from home.
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